Difference between conjunctival congestion and circumcorneal congestion

It is important to differentiate between conjunctival congestion and circumcorneal congestion as they are seen in different diseases and recognising this is necessary to initiate appropriate treatment.

Conjunctival congestionCircumcorneal congestion
LocationMaximum at the fornix, fade towards the limbusMaximum around limbus, fade towards fornix
Vessel involvedPosterior conjunctivalAnterior ciliary
Direction of blood flowCentripetalCentrifugal
ColourBright redLight red
Effect of adrenaline (vasoconstrictor)Blanches immediatelyNo / delayed blanching
BranchingProfuse branchingLimited branching
Mobility of vesselsMove with conjunctivaFixed
Plane of vesselsIn the conjunctivaBelow the conjunctiva
Ciliary tendernessPresentAbsent
EtiologyConjunctival disordersAcute glaucoma, anterior uveitis, corneal disorders

Synonyms of conjunctival congestion:

  • conjunctival injection

Synonyms of circumcorneal congestion:

  • circumcorneal injection
  • ciliary congestion
  • ciliary injection
  • ciliary flush
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