Causes of increased maternal serum alpha fetoprotein

  1. Neural tube defects
  2. Esophageal / intestinal obstruction
  3. Cystic hygroma
  4. Pilonidal cysts
  5. Liver necrosis
  6. Renal anomalies – polycystic kidneys / absent kidneys
  7. Abdominal wall defects – omphalocele / gastroschisis
  8. Sacrococcygeal teratoma
  9. Urinary obstruction
  10. Osteogenesis imprefecta
  11. Congenital skin defects
  12. Congenital nephrosis
  13. Oligohydramnios
  14. Cloacal exstrophy
  15. Chorioangioma of placenta
  16. Low birth weight
  17. Decreased maternal weight
  18. Maternal hepatoma / teratoma
  19. Underestimation of gestational age
  20. Multifetal gestation

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