Demographic cycle

A nation’s population passes through 5 phases during it’s development. They are:

  1. High stationary
    • Birth rate and death rates are high and cancel each other
    • Population size remains stationary
    • India was in this phase till 1920
  2. Early expanding
    • The death rate starts declining
    • Birth rate remains high
    • Birth rates may even increase due to improved health conditions and decreased period of breast feeding
    • Many countries in South Asia and Africa are in this stage
  3. Late expanding
    • Death rate continues to fall
    • Birth rate also starts falling
    • India is currently in this stage
  4. Low stationary
    • Both birth rate and death rate are low and almost equal
    • Population size remains constant
    • Austria recorded a zero population growth in 1980-85
    • Most industrialized nations are in this phase
  5. Declining
    • The birth rate falls below death rate
    • The population size starts falling
    • Some of east European countries like Germany and Hungary are in this phase
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