Bronchiolitis obliterans – Etiology, Pathogenesis, Clinical Features, Investigations and Management

Adenovirus – Bronchiolitis obliterans can occur as sequelae of adenovirus infection in children
  • Bronchiolitis obliterans is a rare chronic disease of bronchioles and smaller airways.
  • It is usually seen in the pediatric population after an episode of respiratory tract infection


  • There is inflammation of the terminal bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts followed by obstruction of airway
  • Abnormal repair of epithelial injury is characteristic of bronchiolitis obliterans

Clinical features:

  • Initially there is fever, cough and dyspnoea followed by a transient improvement in symptoms
  • After the initial improvement, there is increased fever, productive cough and signs of respiratory distress


  • Chest X-ray may show hyperlucency
  • Pulmonary function test shows an obstructive pattern
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