Etiology of Hepatocellular Carcinoma


  • Most important etiological factors responsible for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C
  • But the proportion of HCC caused by these 2 viruses vary in different parts of the world
  • China, Taiwan – 80% HCC is due to Hepatitis B virus
  • United States, Europe – Both Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C contribute equally to the disease
  • India – Hepatis B is the most common cause of HCC
  • Other causes – Aflatoxins, Hemochromatosis, Anabolic steroids, Alcohol, Cirrhosis (any etiology)


  1. Hepatocellular Carcinoma (Liver Cancer):Causes ; John Hopkins Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology
  2. Characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma in India: a retrospective analysis of 191 cases; QJM: An International Journal of Medicine Volume 101, Issue 6Pp. 479-485 

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