William S Halsted of John Hopkins University put forward a set of principles (Halstedian principles) in the 1890’s for achieving the best results in surgery. Now, more than 100 years later, they still form the basis of modern surgical craftsmanship.
- Handle tissues gently
- Achieve meticulous hemostasis
- Preserve vascularity
- Ensure strict asepsis
- Close the wound without tension
- Achieve good approximation of tissues
- Avoid dead space