Loop diuretics – also known as high ceiling diuretics or high efficacy diuretics – are drugs which inhibit Na+ K+ 2Cl- transporters in the thick ascending limb of loop of Henle to increase production of urine. Eg: Frusemide, Bumetanide, Torasemide
Uses of loop diuretics:
- Edema due to all etiologies – cardiac, renal, hepatic.
- Left ventricular failure – frusemide is given intravenously which acts as a pulmonary venodilator thus decreasing left ventricle preload, decreases venous return and blood volume by its diuretic action
- Cerebral edema – can be combined with osmotic diuretics
- Hypertension – indicated in renal insufficiency, congestive heart failure, resistant cases, hypertensive emergencies
- Blood transfusion – to prevent fluid overload
- Hypercalcemia, renal stones – Frusemide increases calcium excretion